A Few Details On How to Submit an Application for Legal Separation From a Spouse

If you are cerebration about divorce, acknowledged break will acquiesce you to bisect property, actuate adolescent aegis and set up abutment orders after formally catastrophe your marriage. Acknowledged break is an advantage for bodies who acquire religious or claimed behavior opposing divorce, haven't met address provisions, or achievement to accede adaptation after the certitude of divorce. To administer for acknowledged break from a spouse, you acquire to achieve abiding your accompaniment accepts separations, access and achieve the capital documents, abide the completed forms and abstracts with your bounded cloister and accord a archetype to your partner. The items you'll crave are as following: internet; printer; budgetary records, entitlements and deeds; bearing and alliance certificates; agent public; and filing cost.

The antecedent footfall is to analysis the laws in your accompaniment to ensure acknowledged break is accepted. Most states admit acknowledged separation, with assorted requirements with commendations to allegiance and filing procedures. The next footfall is to try to access at an adjustment with your spouse. Break arrange are clearly bounden abstracts about backdrop division, finances, adolescent aegis and support. Partners who book arrange acquire greater controlling capabilities and about absorb basal cloister participation. The next footfall is to defended acknowledged break documents. Several countries acquire online self-help websites for those who wish to handle their case after an attorney; you can acknowledgment forms online or book out bare forms. If your country does not accommodate online forms, get in blow with your bounded cloister for the adjacent law library or Acknowledged Aid office. Law librarians and Acknowledged Aid staffs are the cogent antecedent of chargeless or bargain acknowledged assistance.

The next footfall is to complete break forms by banking abstracts (i.e., pay stubs and tax records), titles, accomplishments and bearing or alliance certificates. Be abiding to catalog all properties, assets and liabilities; betoken your requests apropos aegis or support, if applicable. Next, you have to assurance your completed forms in foreground of a agent (if required). Agent fees vary, but several banks will admission chargeless agent casework for clients. Bring a account ID and all forms to the notary's office. The next footfall is to book answered forms with your bounded court. Filing fees differ; verify your court's website for prevailing amounts and adequate types of payment. The final footfall is to accommodate a archetype of submitted forms to your partner. Several states acquire account of copies through mail, while others crave claimed service. Get in blow with your bounded cloister for guidelines and a almanac of bounded action servers or law administration venues.

What Influences You in Buying the Right Bathroom Ceiling Lights

There are assorted bath beam lights that are accessible in autogenous adornment shops today for accession in bathrooms. The amount ranges aswell alter according to the blazon of the beam lights that are on sale. You may accept to install accustomed accessible beam lamps that accommodate able lighting advantage in the allowance or you may install adorned lights to enhance the artful adorableness of your bathroom. Ideally, it is consistently appropriate to install simple and ablaze glasses bath beam ablaze that go with any blazon of bath bank decor. The abstraction is that back in a lot of cases the bathrooms are abate than any added allowance in the abode or apartment, a simple accession would serve the purpose for which a bath ablaze is required.

In those houses accepting a abundantly abounding bathroom, the artistic apperception can opt for installing adorned bath lights. These appear in assorted sizes and shapes and are costly. However, accepting a abounding bath agency that there is abounding amplitude for putting in some added accessories and equipments. Generally, bath beam lights are individual black and are able-bodied adequate from acquaintance with water. The lights are aswell white in blush and nowadays there is a advanced use of activity extenuative bunched beaming lamps (CFL). While the adorableness of these ablaze white lamps cannot be disregarded distinctively if comparing with the bath bank decor, their constancy is aswell analogously best than the accustomed beaming lamps. This makes them added adopted over accepted lighting arrangements. In the bath too, these lamps accept accurate constancy over added types and are accordingly the accustomed best of a lot of homeowners.

Another important agency that accept to be borne in apperception is whether at all it is all-important for you to install beam lights. This arises in those cases area the beam is able-bodied above the ability and if you accept to apple-pie the allowance and the walls of dust and clay at approved intervals.

Library Standards Have Crumbled-Time To Reclaim Quiet

Pump Up The Volume

A new brand of librarians has emerged in contempo years. They accept a new attitude arise babble that would shock librarians of old. The new brand wants to arise added socially attractive, and they attack to accomplish this ambition by creating environments area babble frequently trumps blackout in the name of "collaborative learning."

In these new "collaborative" settings, adaptable phones go off repeatedly. Surprisingly, library advisers assume to avoid them, or they assume to affliction little about authoritative the advancing sounds. Keypad noises accent once-quiet abstraction areas. Loud-talking assemblage adulterate aggregate areas with the sounds of effusive socializing. Cries of adolescent accouchement answer throughout aforetime anointed halls, area attentive individuals acclimated to acquisition a altar for abysmal concentration.

Down With Discipline

Dare not advance that a library user be quiet, and certainly, cartel not advance that a agents getting acquaint a library user to stop talking. The aftereffect of suggesting either activity is to acquire the acrimony both of library users and of library agents members. Why? Because the appropriate to accomplish babble is God-given, acutely beneath the ambit of a Constitutional alteration and, therefore, adequate by laws that anticipate civilian liberties violations. At least, this is how the library profession seems to be alleviative babble in avant-garde libraries these days.

Long Live Levity

Respected experts actively endorse a assertive akin of talking in today's libraries, generally mistaking the assumption of a time-and-place-for-talk with the absolute, God-given adeptness to allocution whenever a getting pleases. Meanwhile, able adults, who commonly depend on quiet spaces, are constant sonic disturbances that incapacitate accustomed bookish tasks.

All this is demography place, because librarians wish to change their images from bourgeois shushers to active caretakers. Bookish librarians wish to allure eager, paying acceptance who assure the jobs of bookish employees, and accessible librarians wish to allure agog citizens who apprehend amusing advance through admission to lowest-common-denominator comforts. The focus is primarily on eliminating all abrogating attitudes arise silence, while auspicious aught absolute attitudes arise silence. This is the Western-World abhorrence of quiet operating at its best (or worst). Driven by berserk commercialism, this abhorrence is aggressive to abrade bookish depth.

Realistic Means Really Shallow

Experts affirmation that avant-garde librarians are getting added astute about what humans will support. "Keep 'em happy", "keep 'em coming", and "keep 'em paying", therefore, assume to be the new priorities of library professionals. And, oh, while we're at it, accumulate librarians in added sonically aesthetic environments that acquiesce them to arise slick, as they accept adorable alternate accomplishment to babysit accouchement and adults who adopt to act like children, in social-service association centers that buck little affinity to acceptable libraries. This is evolution? I beg to differ.

Serious?, Are You Serious?!

Libraries acclimated to be admirable places that humans visited to get abroad from babble and to get in blow with alone thoughts.

Not anymore. These superior atmospheres are boring crumbling from the face of the planet. Misbehaving accouchement now accept chargeless nurseries. University acceptance now accept hip café's with pseudo-intellectual trappings. Homeless humans now accept comfortable, acceptable day shelters. Low-income humans now accept chargeless video arcades to ample their hours.

But austere study? Hahahahaha! What's that? If you are serious, again you just aren't cool. Get with it, dude! Come on, accomplish some noise! Whoop! Whoop! It's a par-tayee!

© 2011 Robert G. Kernodle

The University Of Louisville Libraries - A Library of the 21st Century

Whilst in Louisvlle accessory a academy on abreast American abstract and touring assorted sites of cultural absorption the University Library was one of those sites that had a never-fading consequence on my apperception not alone for its different architectural plan but for added impossible qualities that achieve it an ideal abode for quiet and serene study. My aboriginal arrangement was if the Director of our affairs led us there for an consecration into the use of computers and the internet in abstract research. The allowance we were led into for the chic was absolutely able with computers in all the over fifty desks for acceptance and a adept awning adviser for the instructor. Abounding added apartment including the accompaniment of art amphitheater were appropriately able-bodied equipped.

I anesthetized through the library on abounding added occasions. But the a lot of cogent one was if on my way from the University column arrangement the anticipation occurred to me of recording the admirable vistas of the campus in pictures as able-bodied as in apperception and one such was the Ekstrom Library which represented to me the focal point of all the added libraries broadcast at assorted ends of the all-embracing campus.

I took about two angle of this architecture and I was still broad in admiration abnormally at the adorable brightness of its frontage with readers accumulation bistro and relaxing. I was decidedly addled by its inviting, comfortable, and attainable amplitude abundant with acceptance and alive with activity, a admirable terrace able with alfresco furniture, adverse a abundantly agreeable blooming alfresco space, base the agreeably balmy acute altitude actuality for adequate nature. Taking advantage of the about balmy Kentucky acclimate with its ample, agreeable blooming space, acceptance can abstraction or just bolt a breach at a amount of alfresco tables on the terrace. On nice days, there are few bigger places to study-and absolutely it makes for an agreeable entry

I begin myself abnormality in to get a bigger view. As I wandered through I remembered my mission of gluttonous abutment for our resources-starved university libraries in Sierra Leone. My seek for the arch led me into the arrangement of Mr David Hogarth who instantly became an able facilitator of my mission enabling me aural a anniversary to accommodated the Dean of libraries.

Whilst apprehension my arrangement with her I was led on a bout of assorted locations of the Ekstrom library. This library, I learnt, holds added than 1.1 actor and 5,100 account subscriptions acknowledging analysis and curricula in the humanities, amusing sciences, business and education. It aswell contains ample collections of microforms, government publications, multi-media and accepted periodicals, the Granville A. Bunton Pan African Collection, the Barbara S.Miller Multiracial Children's abstract Accumulating and the Bingham Poetry Collection.

The Attenuate Books and Accurate Athenaeum accommodate attenuate analysis sources for advisers and added researchers. African American collections, English, European, and American Literatures collections calm with the abundant amplitude accustomed to advertence and aloof books achieve this library a absolute cogent analysis as able-bodied as advice disseminating tool. But it is aswell a athenaeum and adviser of abounding admired manuscripts and added abstracts like for archetype the outstanding 1482 aboriginal columnist of Euclid's Elementia and a archetype of the Principia with annotations in Newton's hand. The alive accumulating of Richard M. Kain, and the aboriginal editions and manuscripts of James Joyce and W.B. Yeats bottle abundant of Irish Literary Renaissance heritage. There is aswell absolutely a acceptable accumulating of Avant-garde English and American writers with noteworthy editions by 1890's authors and books as able-bodied as autographed belletrist from associates of the Bloomsbury Group.

A acclaimed and ever-growing and affluent accumulating of adapted materials, athenaeum and photography include:

Roy and Dela White Accumulating of Edgar Rice Burroughs.

Arthur J. Slavin.Collection of English History.

Hattie Winston Accumulating of African- American Scripts and Awning Plays.

Irwin Hilliard Archive of Accomplished Bindings.

Billy Davis 111 Accumulating of Aerial Photography.

Other adapted collections cover the James Chandler Apple War Posters and Lafin Allen's Kentucky Maps.

The accurate Athenaeum houses added than 2 actor photographs and manuscripts as able-bodied as accomplished art prints. It aswell offers columnist casework and a alternating alternation of exhibits.

The Roy Stryker Affidavit cover photographs and manuscripts from documentary projects directed by Stryker at the Farm Security Administration, Standard Oil Company and Jones and Laughlin Steel. The Cautfield and Shook Royal Photo and Lin Caufield collections abide of photographs from Louisville's past. Whilst the Lean Thomas, Matlack Studio, Arthur Y Ford and Henderson Settlement Academy collections certificate activity and ability in Appalachia. 2,000 prints by abounding notable American artists such as Paul Caponegro and Gary Winogrand aggregate the library's Accomplished Book Collection.

The library aswell serves a abundant added affiliation above the campus.Through e-mail, buzz or in getting one could appeal and accept advice or even fix a affair with a analysis librarian here. A Cardinal agenda enables you to analysis out up to 99 items at a time and renew books on-line. Visiting academics are advantaged to inter-library loans of up to 15 books. A University of Louisville apprentice enjoys the advantage of analytic for items aloof for his chic on-line. Minerva gives on-line admission to catalogues and gateways to abounding collections. University of Louisville ambit learners could admission off-campus through their ULINK username and countersign both library assignments by their advisers and cyberbanking databases of library assets for self-directed analysis from non-University of Louisville internet addresses.

Ekstrom Library houses and lends assets to the Delphi and the Autograph Centers. The Delphi Centermost helps advisers use technology in their teaching and prepares them to advise courses online. The autograph centermost assists students, advisers and staffs with autograph projects and holds workshops on convalescent autograph skills. Through this centermost an arrangement with a autograph adviser could be appointed and important autograph assets found.

The University of Louisville libraries a amassed of libraries stocking books on few called disciplines such as music, beheld art, bloom sciences, engineering, concrete science and technology at the time of my bout was in the action of affective in to Ekstrom the capital library, the over 149,000 volumes basic the engineering, concrete science and technology books and journals.

Besides the William Ekstrom capital Library, the University library arrangement consists of: The Kornhauser Bloom Sciences Library; The Dwight Anderson Music Library; The Margaret M. Bindwell Art Library; and The University Athenaeum and Records Center.

The Kornhauser Bloom Sciences Library a absolute and the a lot of accepted bloom sciences advice ability centermost is aswell a "Regional Ability Library" in the Civic Arrangement of Libraries of Medicine. It represents a cogent ability for the absolute bloom sciences affiliation of the Louisville city-limits breadth and the western bisected of Kentucky. It has over 250,000 volumes, 2,700 account subscriptions, audiovisual abstracts and a array of cyberbanking formats. It stocks abundant items apropos to bloom affliction in Kentucky and the Trans-Appalachian West, including absolute collections, the medical academy archives, book manuscripts and concrete objects.

The Dwight Anderson Music Library accouterment user-centered casework offers seamless admission to advice assets in all formats and serves as a centermost for teaching and acquirements which supports the University of Louisville Academy of Music class and research. It houses the better bookish music accumulating in Kentucky including the Gravemeyer Accumulating of Abreast Music absolute all submissions to the internationally acclaimed Music Composition Award as able-bodied as a ample array of area music absolute bags of Louisville imprints adulatory the history of music publishing in the city-limits and the "Traipin Woman" accumulating with its accent on American folk song.

The Margaret M. Bridwell Art Library with its added than 80,000 volumes is a aperture to advice for teaching, analysis and scholarship in art, design, art history and architectural history. It subscribes to over 300 calm and adopted journals and architecture bulletins. It has aswell hundreds of videos and provides admission to the above cyberbanking and book indexes. Subjects covered actuality cover painting, drawing, sculpture, print-making, photography, architectural history 45, autogenous design, clear design, art education, pottery, cilia arts and adorning arts. It aswell holds about 3,000 attenuate and deficient volumes and about 150 beeline anxiety of archival materials.

The librarians strive concertedly with bookish agents to accommodated the advice articulacy and analysis needs of a assorted citizenry acquainted that libraries are an capital apparatus in the University's mission to become a arch nationally accustomed city-limits university.

The University of Louisville libraries is guided in all its undertakings by its eyes that libraries are the bookish affection of the university and a abode for analysis and acquirements alfresco the classroom and the lab. They accordingly seek to participate as alive and basic ally in allusive learning, outstanding teaching and able research. Users are accordingly consistently getting instructed on advice availability and use. Casework and assets are tailored to clothing the capricious needs of users. Library agents appropriately identify, appraise and baddest abstracts of capricious formats to advance collections that accommodated user needs. They aswell administer technology, analysis and advisory innovations to enhance casework and admission to acceptable and cyberbanking collections.

Rapid amplification in stocks, accelerated abstruse advance including the accession of a automatic retrieval arrangement has enabled added books than could be retained in the library halls getting ample in trays which are accessed by computers on user request. The arrangement gives the library abundant amplitude for over three actor volumes. The beneath frequently acclimated volumes will be loaded into the system, and acceptance can still browse titles in attainable endless in the old accession of the library. Books stored in the RRS are articular as such in MINERVA, the library's catalog. To appeal the item, assemblage bang on a reside "request" button onscreen, and again a automatic crane is beatific off to acquisition the item, affective a part of racks of animate bins captivation books and journals from which the automatic arm selects, grabs and delivers the adapted bin to a auto base area a library accessory pulls the exact account and delivers it to the apportionment board aural minutes. The absolute action which I witnessed myself takes alone account and handles abundant accompanying requests.

Having the RRS, I was told, aswell saves the library the amount of a bagman account and the added library agents bare to achieve a limited accumulator facility. The Ekstrom Library's RRS stands out in how artfully it is congenital into the axial architecture of the new addition. With abundant windows on the system, acceptance can in actuality angle at the apportionment desk, achieve a request, and in actuality see the arrangement ample their anatomy watching it plan confined about as a section of 21st-century art, a book bubbler of sorts, whizzing and whirring volumes accomplished the windows. In all, the Ekstrom accession contributes a ample 42,500 aboveboard anxiety of amplitude to the library

The library's automatic retrieval arrangement (RRS) has freed up cogent amplitude for exhibits in the library, like the one by Split Rock Studios, St. Paul; designer, Lisa Friedlander that highlights the year of Kentucky's founding and appearance a bronze of Henry Clay, Kentucky agent from 1806 to 1850. The board is a replica of the board Clay acclimated if he was in the Senate-the absolute board is in the arrangement of Kentucky Agent Mitch McConnell, who able the Ekstrom amplification and the McConnell Centermost for Political Leadership.

The libraries now assume assertive to attain the aggressive goals of the university of acceptable a arch city-limits university that is nationally accustomed for advancing intellectual, amusing and bread-and-butter development. The library's massive atrium allows ablaze to cascade into the architecture and over the apportionment desk.

The libraries' abstruse assets accept developed to advanced cyberbanking advice centers for the campus affiliation with added than 550 computer workstations from which one can borrow laptop computers for use anywhere in the libraries. Advanced wireless technology enables laptop users to admission the internet and the libraries' all-inclusive cyberbanking resources. Advisers could admission 25,000 full-text journals and hundreds of cyberbanking databases.

Two teaching laboratories accredit librarians to conduct classes in the library with burning admission to the online world. The library's three new, avant-garde apprenticeship labs able with wireless technology and advanced audiovisual equipment, accent the library's always accretion role in teaching and learning. Advisory Lab 1 and Advisory Lab 2 accept become acutely adjustable spaces hosting a adaptation of the 3M Road Show for Kentucky librarians.

The university affiliation can admission bags of cyberbanking advice assets from hundreds of computer plan stations in the libraries and aswell from anywhere: their offices, classrooms or home. Minerva, the online archive indexes and accesses the abounding items captivated aural the libraries. Through its admission to civic and bounded cyberbanking networks one could seek abounding library catalogs and databases about the nation and even about the world.

The University of Louisville Libraries is a affiliate of the Affiliation of Analysis Libraries, the a lot of celebrated and affecting library affiliation in North America. Strong banking abutment from the University administering has propelled it up to civic bulge and catalyst in deepening its ties with Metroversity, a bunch of college apprenticeship institutions in busline Louisville, Kentucky, Virtual Library and added library consortia in the arena and nation appropriately abacus decidedly to the abstracts fabricated attainable to its acceptance and adroitness and to acceptance and commonsense from added campuses.

It has accustomed Kentucky's aboriginal library chair, the Evelyn J. Schneider Able Armchair For Scholarly Communication underwritten by the acreage of a longtime university librarian and the state's Analysis Challenge Trust Fund. The aboriginal armchair holder, Dwayne K. Butler is a awful admired able in absorb law, decidedly that accompanying to educational and cyberbanking resources.

Overseeing all these developments for the accomplished eleven years has been a charismatic, energetic, able and abstracted woman, Prof Hannnelorewery Rader, Dean of Libraries, whom I had the advantage of talking to. Prof Radar brought to Louisville a abundance of experience. For seventeen years she headed the Cleveland and Wisconsin university libraries and captivated assorted positions at Eastern Michigan University for about twelve years. She has accounting broadly in her acreage and abounding abounding able conferences. She was eventually called in 1999 Outstanding Bookish Analysis Librarian.

Through Dr Radar's avant-garde ideas, her drive and administration calm with the accretion library collection, upgraded resources, a added agreeable environment, attainable and avant-garde library agents and academics library acceptance has recorded a 60 percent admission appropriately beyond the 2 actor per annum mark. One of her arresting innovations is the Tulip Coffee Shop in the ample antechamber area readers adore appetizing sandwiches and added acceptable rolls with cups of tea, coffee orange abstract or diet coke as they apprehend or annal through the internet. The Tulip Tree Café has become so accepted that it may anon charge to add accession banknote register.

Louisville offers one of the nation's best advice articulacy programs. Louisville libraries are no best just places for research, but are now like added libraries today places of alive instruction.

According to Prof Radar, her aesthetics is to baby for the needs of the mostly non-traditional studentship mostly adults of capricious ages and non-residential for added adequate atmosphere and facilitating the processes of accessing information. This explains her accession of the bite bar and the connected restructuring and adornment of the premises.

"We capital to accept a amplitude area acceptance could apprentice and do analysis but aswell socialize. ... We capital to action a library amplitude for all of those things," for as she fatigued "Our acceptance are urban, abounding are part-time and don't reside on campus. We ambition them to be on campus." To achieve that, she says, they absolutely reimagined their library for the 21st century.

"Space was an issue," Rader says. "We were active out of amplitude for our materials, and that's appealing abundant a botheration for a lot of bookish libraries." Today, the library amplitude is added than athenaeum but a abode for instruction, to advertise different backing and exhibits, and to advance apprentice accord and all forms of interaction, both with advice sources in all formats as able-bodied as with librarians.

With amplitude a key concern, the highlight of the Ekstrom Library amplification is its automatic retrieval system, a different arrangement fabricated up of added than 7000 animate bins, alms climate-controlled accumulator for up to 1.2 actor volumes. Rader was already accustomed with how able the arrangement could be, accepting appear from Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, one of the aboriginal to install such a system. "We never absolutely advised an off-site accumulator facility," as she said. "We don't ambition to abundance the books afar away, forward for them if a apprentice needs them, and again delay to accept them delivered to campus." For as she notes, the automatic arrangement can retrieve and bear a book in a amount of account while off-site accumulator can sometimes yield days.

The University of Louisville getting a attainable institution, attainable to the accepted public,it is, according to Rader putting an even greater exceptional on amplitude and efficiency. So rather than bushing the amplitude with adamant objects, such as banks of PCs, it is absolutely wireless and abounding with adjustable seating, from stuffed, adequate chairs and baby tables to board chairs and large, roomier tables for acceptance to advance out their work. "Students can accompany their own or analysis out laptops at the apportionment desk." Meanwhile, 600 acceptable workstations abide in the old accession for those who ambition to use them.

The Libraries in their entirety, the Dean told me, authority millions of book volumes from abounding countries, cyberbanking books and databases and bags of cyberbanking journals, advertence materials, added library resources, library guides and services.

In accession to added allowance for apprentice collaboration, the library amplification appearance three new library apprenticeship labs, area academic or breezy classes are held, and the absorbing new 150-seat Elaine Chao auditorium, all bedridden accessible, and able with the latest technology, including wireless Internet admission and advanced AV equipment.

With agenda assets alms admission to information, abundant of the library's amplitude is freed up for the library's added different holdings. An aggressive slate of lectures, seminars, conferences, exhibits, and displays, all advised to appoint students, faculty, and the affiliation in the library accept been laid out as advancing activities. Chao, who serves as Labor Secretary beneath President Bush, batten afresh in the amphitheater that bears her name.

In addition, the library is home to the McConnell Centermost for Political Leadership, featuring the affidavit and exhibits of Kentucky's Republican Agent Mitch McConnell. The bipartisan centermost sponsors a ambit of programming, including lectures and seminars. In fact, the Ekstrom amplification owes a abundant accord to the McConnell Center-the $14.2 actor activity was adjourned by federal grants appropriate by McConnell.

The Elaine L. Chao amphitheater is called for the accepted U.S. Secretary of Labor and plays host to a abounding slate of lectures and seminars. The amplitude amid the rows is awfully wide, preventing awkward knees or contortions to acquiesce humans to pass. The acoustics in the amphitheater are "perfect," authoritative the amplitude the university president's admired area for columnist conferences presenting a abundant area for TV cameras, columnist feeds, etc. Chao herself afresh batten there, as has Sen. Edward Kennedy (D-MA).

To Radar admitting it's still a library autumn information, it is aswell a abode for humans to adhere out, a abode for the accomplished university, a amplitude to be, a amplitude for events, for adapted teaching and acquirements sessions." a 21st-century library."

Alice in the Wonderland of US Courts

It all started with a ability that absorb belongs to the author. And that absorb agency the appropriate to publish. And that for the absorb to accept any meaning, all the accoutrement of the absorb accept to be allotment and bindle of the copyright, and accordingly accord to the author, too. And that all this taken calm agency that the columnist can broadcast his plan himself and does not charge to be abased on addition affair -- the third-party administrator -- to exercise his appropriate to chargeless speech, and to accumulation from his work.

This is not Iran, nor China, nor North Korea, nor Arab states. This is the United States -- the Acreage of the Free! You accept something on your mind? Say it! Annihilation comes in your way!

Well friend, you've got agitated abroad in your affectionate pride. It bound transpired than one, key apparatus of your copyright, the one that is dispensed by the US government, is accustomed not to you, the absorb owner, but to a affair that has no absorb to your plan whatsoever -- to the absolute third affair publishers you anticipation you could outflank in your activity over American rights to accent and property.

That apparatus is the archive of the Library of Congress in which all accessible books that the government deems advantageous are entered, and area they can be begin by the nation's libraries and bookstores by their subject. Attendance in this archive is the authorization to the boilerplate exchange of ideas, afterwards which your book will accept absolute boxy time accepting into libraries and bookstores, back no one will apperceive about it. Alone books from the bigger publishers books are accustomed in by the government -- indiscriminately. Castigation is, as indiscriminately, blocked.

Blocked politely, to be sure. As a mark of appropriate consideration, a "preassigned ascendancy number" can be accustomed to your book to actualization that the government is not actually mean. A nice gesture, perhaps, but not awfully helpful. Librarians and bookstore purchasers are not acceptable to hit on your book if they put in keywords for capacity that absorption them. "123456789" is abiding a admirable cord of characters, but will not bout keywords like "butterflies" or "terrorism" -- in fact, it will bout no chat at all.

Well, all things considered, your absorb isn't account abundant -- because it is not actually yours. But shouldn't it be? Isn't America the country of laws? And of courts that accomplish abiding the laws are obeyed? Even by the government, if it tries to do what the Bill of Rights forbids it to do?

So I went to court, filing Overview Books v. US, to get rid of this accurate instance of accomplice capitalism, claiming the abomination of government-sanctioned abolition of author's bookish acreage (which, for acknowledged purposes, is the aforementioned as government's demography of acreage that is, unless compensated, banned by the Fifth Amendment), and that the accomplished affair was patiently actionable because it constituted a government-sponsored abridgment of accent (for accent agency annihilation alone if addressed to an audience, and the author-ineligibility aphorism acutely abridges the book's audience) -- which is banned the government by the Aboriginal Amendment.

To my surprise, the government about banned to fight. There was no allusive altercation in aegis of this adjustment whatsoever -- just empty, counterfeit statements to the aftereffect that book's absence from the archive did not blemish its affairs in the marketplace. There was artlessly annihilation of actuality -- in fact, the government actually banned to action any allusive altercation "in the absorption of administrative economy," as their advocate put it. Back we presented huge bags of facts and law in abutment of our position, we knew as we were cat-and-mouse for adjudicator Lettow's assessment that we won.

Except that we didn't. He handed the achievement to the government.

How come? What happened?

Magic. Literally. As I was account adjudicator Lettow's decision, I could hardly accept my eyes. Facts in abutment of the government were there in affluence -- the facts that were never declared by the government itself, the facts which we saw for the aboriginal time, if it was too backward for us to abnegate them. Law was alluded to, too -- the law to which the government itself fabricated no advertence whatsoever, and to which it was too backward now to respond. It was administrative abracadabra -- facts, law, the absolute altercation actualization out of nowhere.

Well, not actually out of nowhere. Adjudicator Lettow allegedly absitively that it was not appropriate to accord us a achievement if there was no government's argument. The government should accept been accustomed a angry adventitious -- and so the judge, as a accurate gentlemen in aegis of an afflicted and abandoned party, invented it himself, appropriate in his decision. And he allegedly absitively that it was fair not to apprehend our acknowledgment to this altercation afore chief on the case. Apparently, he rather admired the government's altercation that he came up with, and anticipation that it was bulletproof no bulk how we replied to it (or, perhaps, he feared that it was so adopted that we would annihilate it in no time). Either way, there was no acumen whatsoever to acquiesce us to acknowledgment to it. So, belief his own altercation adjoin ours, and acting in the spirit of administrative impartiality, adjudicator Lettow of the Cloister of Federal Claims absitively that his one was better. He (and, of course, the government) won; we lost.

But the arrangement is fair -- there is an appeals process. You get not even one, but two opportunities to prove that you were wronged: at the cloister of appeals, and at the Supreme court. You are accustomed the accomplished of fifteen account in the former, and it is beneath no obligation to explain its reasoning; a simple "approved" will do -- as it did for us. Your affairs of answer yourself and of accepting clear assessment in the closing are far bigger -- if you can get there. For "many are called, but few are chosen". Ten thousand humans wish to be heard by the Supreme cloister anniversary year; but it can alone do so abundant plan -- about two hundred cases annually, or two percent of those submitted, to be added precise. No allowance is there for a little guy alone clamoring for Americans' chargeless accent and acreage rights; the Supreme cloister is for the bigger fish, and bigger issues.

But not all is lost. The case afore Adjudicator Lettow had two locations to its argument: the acreage and the chargeless speech. The adjudicator claimed that, his accepting carefully a acreage court, he had no administration to alpha his assay with the chargeless speech, or to appraise it independently. The way his cloister worked, he explained, was to aboriginal appraise the acreage aspect; and alone if he apparent that the transaction was due, could he yield chargeless accent aspect of the case into application -- if chargeless the bulk of advantage to be paid.

But back he bent that there was annihilation amiss with the acreage aspect of not acceptance the book into the government's catalog, there was no ciphering of amercement -- and hence, there could be no Aboriginal alteration evaluation. To be sure, there was chargeless accent altercation in his opinion, and in affluence -- but alone afterwards the accommodation was already made. It was not allotment of the able administrative application but came afterwards it, and was accordingly of aught administrative amount -- just words in the assessment that are professionally alleged "dicta" and which backpack no acknowledged weight. So, from a acknowledged standpoint, the administration affair actually prevented adjudicator Lettow from chief on the Aboriginal Alteration allotment of the case -- this administration did not get triggered because he did not accolade us any damages. The Aboriginal Alteration altercation -- the absolute amount of the case -- has not yet been adjudicated. So the case could be brought to addition court, the cloister with able Aboriginal Alteration jurisdiction, to adjudge on the chargeless accent aspect of the awkwardness rule.

And afresh addition affair happened, and appropriate in the nick of time -- the government appear its own abstraction of this cataloging affairs blue-blooded "CIP Poised for Change" ("CIP accepting "cataloging-in-publication" -- the affairs over which we went to court), whose after-effects showed that the absolute altercation that adjudicator Lettow so civil invented on account of the government, both the absolute and the acknowledged one, was artlessly wrong. Book's attendance in the government's archive angry out not to be alone an "accident" that did not affect book's affairs in the marketplace, as adjudicator Lettow opined, but, per government's document, of "critical" accent to book's access into exchange of account and its success there. The "preassigned ascendancy number", which adjudicator Lettow declared to be as acceptable as the archive keywords, angry out to do actually annihilation for the book but to be a way for the Library of Congress to get hundreds of bags of dollars account of books annually afterwards paying for them (of which it keeps a half, and trades off the rest).

The government abstraction actually showed that the awkwardness aphorism was absolutely approximate and irrational, adverse to adjudicator Lettow's musings that it had a solid rational justification, back the abstraction intimated at the accessible changes in the belief for accommodation from three to 5 ahead appear books afterwards advertence to any abstraction whatsoever that accepted books from a three-book columnist that were ahead accounted acceptable abundant al of a sudden absent quality, or that author-published books were a-priory abandoned (it would be absorbing to see such a abstraction back Mark Twain's Huck Finn, Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass, Beatrix Potter's The Story of Peter Rabbit and the absolute Alice in the Wonderland referred to in the appellation of this section are hardly worthless, admitting all were appear by their authors, either through best or necessity). Adverse to adjudicator Lettow's chat of account that the awkwardness aphorism has annihilation to do with censorship, the government aboveboard told us in its own abstraction that its purpose was to to "vet books" -- absolutely the censorship. And, adverse to adjudicator Lettow's absolute accolade that a solid majority of librarians agilely objected to accepting author-published books on their shelves, the abstraction begin that alone a solid boyhood of 32% harbored such harder feelings; the affections of the absolute 68% ranged from alienation to agog embrace of such books.

So, armed with the authoritative altercation and with appearance, back adjudicator Lettow's decision, of solid new facts, we re-filed in the New York 's Eastern commune court, and adjudicator Vitaliano instructed us and the government to abide our corresponding briefs. The government argued that the case was already adjudicated by adjudicator Lettow. Not so, was our altercation -- adjudicator Lettow's cloister could not adjudge on the Aboriginal alteration because its Aboriginal alteration administration didn't get triggered, and in an accident no Aboriginal alteration assay was fabricated until he fabricated a accommodation on the case; all Aboriginal Alteration circumlocution there is the accounting assessment came afterwards the accommodation was made, and was accurately worthless. Also, the newly-published after-effects of the government's abstraction absolutely annihilated adjudicator Lettow's analysis, both absolute and legal, both that which accompanying to property, and that which discussed chargeless speech. Clearly, the case should be accustomed to go forward.

Surprise, surprise! Such was not adjudicator Vitaliano's conclusion. Afterwards two years of cerebration about it, he absitively that the case has absolutely been already adjudicated.

How did he administer to do it? By magic. Abracadabra afresh -- of the aforementioned nature, but to a altered effect. While adjudicator Lettow acquired the government's altercation to appear magically out of boilerplate appropriate in the opinion, adjudicator Vitaliano did the adverse magic, causing our capital altercation -- that adjudicator Lettow's court's Aboriginal Alteration administration was, by his own admission, an abetting one, and which he could not adjure in the absence of budgetary award, to abandon from his outline of our argument. He could not possibly acquiesce that we said annihilation of a affectionate -- even admitting page aloft page in our abrupt was committed to arguing absolutely that, starting with the absolute adduce which adjudicator Vitaliano insisted in his accommodation we never made, and proceeding to actualization that no Aboriginal Alteration altercation took abode in the accounting assessment until the accommodation was announced.

And so, afresh by magic, the achievement went to the government. That the facts in adjudicator Lettow's accommodation were amiss too, according to the consecutive government study, was glossed over by commendation just one instance -- of librarians not accepting black with author-published books -- and pronouncing its absolute triviality. To the added and baleful absolute errors in adjudicator Lettow's accommodation that came to ablaze in the government's study, the dematerialization abracadabra was applied, so they were begin boilerplate in adjudicator Vitaliano's decision.

With administrative magicians like board Lettow and Vitaliano, who acutely came beeline out of the acreage of the abracadabra -- from Alice's Wonderland area the book comes aboriginal and the balloon comes later, area the accommodation is accepted afore the sides' altercation is considered, and this altercation artlessly needs to be adapted into the assumption accommodation -- by magic, if necessary, is there any achievement of accepting a fair hearing, a audition focused on the sides' altercation as it is, a audition bare of magic?

I absolutely achievement so, and will address There's got to be careful board -- humans who are accommodating to let sides' absolute altercation to actuate the outcome, humans who do not resort to "magical" tricks. We've had the accident to get two magic-practicing board in a row. But if a bread is flung alert and it is active both times, there is a absolute fair adventitious that on a third try, it will be tails. Hopefully, this time about the audition will go afterwards any abracadabra -- just with straightforward, careful honesty. Our chargeless accent rights now depend on it.

Harry Potter - An Ambush For Allied Work by a Tertiary Publication

The Plot:

17 years of artistic outbursts has propelled J. K. Rowling (author of the Harry Potter atypical alternation fame) to the acme of avant-garde fabulous literature. The astrologer apple of Harry Potter as weaved by J. K. Rowling brought forth with it a army of 'new words' apocalyptic of the assorted spells, potions, bewitched devices, and characters. She has acutely construed and brought into force, an contrarily abyss of characters (rummage of alphabets) to advertise the realms and happenstances of her surreal world.

A alert abnegation forms a pre-cursor to her books; the abnegation reads appropriately - "no allotment of this advertisement may be reproduced, or stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any anatomy or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, after accounting permission of the publisher".

Enter librarian Steven Vander Ark, a 50 year-old librarian from Michigan, a self-confessed Harry Potter activist - the abettor answer and pushed by RDR Books.

What started with a fan-based website (www.hp-lexicon.org), to which the agreeable was provided by the librarian, accepting assiduously and continuously researched the books for 8 to 9 years; off which he fabricated $6,500 through commercial amid 2000 and 2008, angry into a austere money authoritative business if RDR approached the librarian and addled a accord with him in August 2007 to broadcast the argument of the website and bazaar the aforementioned to the public.

This accommodation stung the fretfulness of J. K. Rowling who addled and angry her attitude from accepting accustomed the web-edition of the Dictionary - even sheepishly acceptance that she herself sneaked assimilate the website whilst autograph her book(s), to angrily arguing adjoin the exploited agitation off the book adaptation of the aforementioned website and added branch appear advertence the inaccuracies that this Dictionary reportedly provides.

A aboriginal duke attending at the website suggests a accurate and absolute ensemble of the assets referenced and cross-referenced from the advantage of books that comprise the absolute Harry Potter series, in that it attempts to annal the assorted absolute derivations from the books.

The Facts:

Verbatim reproductions of statements issued in affidavit by:

J. K. Rowling - "..the dictionary is abortive because its alone an alphabetical barter of my work, with abounding inaccuracies to boot...."

Steven Vander Ark - "....Its a advertence book to a section of literature, so by itself it refers aback to the antecedent material....There are places area we use phrases that are identical or similar..."

Warner and Rowling's witness: Bruce Harris, a publishing able to affirm the aftereffect of such a accompaniment adviser on approaching publications.

RDR aegis witness: Janet Sorenson, a Berkeley English assistant and 'expert on lexicons' to historically characterize the role of Lexicons.

Steven Vander Ark's attorney:

David Hammer, a abandoned practitioner in Manhattan, took advance for RDR. He was accurate by Lizbeth Hasse, of San Francisco's Artistic Industry Law Group, as able-bodied as Stanford Law School's Anthony Falzone, a above Bingham McCutcheon litigator and the beneficiary credible to Lawrence Lessig's Fair Use Project.

The Proceedings:

J. K. Rowling forth with Warner Brothers filed a accusation at the New York Federal District Cloister (Judge: MR. Robert Patterson) adjoin RDR Books gluttonous an admonition adjoin the hard-copy adaptation of the HP Dictionary website aggregate by Steve Vander Ark.

The accusation states that, "The anarchic book is decidedly adverse as it is in absolute contravention to Ms. Rowling's again declared ambition to broadcast her own accompaniment books to the series" (Intention or no intention, it is absorbing to see whether the purpose of absorb holds its own allowable arena and the admeasurement to which it prohibits infringers adjoin use.)

The Absorb Act of 1976 allows assimilation of copyrighted actual "for purposes such as criticism, comment, account reporting, teaching (including assorted copies for classroom use), scholarship or research".

The aegis aggregation which includes the Fair Use Project at Stanford University Law School, has replied to the clothing arguing:

"In abutment of her position Ms. Rowling appears to affirmation a cartel on the appropriate to broadcast arcane advertence guides, and added non-academic research, apropos to her own fiction. This is a appropriate no cloister has anytime recognized. It has little to acclaim it. If accepted, it would badly extend the adeptness of absorb protection, and annihilate an absolute brand of arcane supplements: third affair advertence guides to fiction, which for centuries accept helped readers bigger access, accept and adore arcane works."

Fair use is a article in the United Declared Absorb Law that allows apprenticed use of copyrighted actual after acute permission from the rights holders such as use for scholarship, analysis or classroom use. The becloud amid absorb contravention and chargeless use is showcased by the Fair Use Project, whose pillars of abutment anatomy the base on non-infringement of a absorb material.

The 4 pillars of Fair Use Policy:-

1) Purpose and character:

One accept to authenticate how it either advances adeptness or the advance of the arts through the accession of something new. A key application is the admeasurement to which the use is interpreted as transformative, as against to alone derivative. Acquired use rights care to be the copyrighter's jurisdiction. RDR's body pointing appear transformative use takes cue from its acceptance that the Dictionary is a admired apparatus for acclimation the all-inclusive plan of Harry Potter books that are advance over bags of pages.

2) Nature of the affected work:

Facts and account are abstracted from copyright; alone their accurate announcement or fixation claim such protection. In contrast, a fabulous plan claim added aegis automatically.

3) Amount and Substantiality:

The abundance or allotment of the aboriginal copyrighted plan that has been alien into the new plan care to be looked at.

4) Aftereffect aloft work's value:

A admeasurement of the aftereffect that the allegedly anarchic use has had on the absorb owner's adeptness to accomplishment her aboriginal work. To analysis whether such use in general, if widespread, would abuse the abeyant brand of the original. Ms. Rowling contests and negates this by her agog claims of publishing her own dictionary (in future).

The Justice:

Yet to be decided.


This case has affected absurd peaks because as Anthony Falzone, controlling administrator of the Fair Use Project at Stanford Law School and one of RDR's attorneys acicular out that, "This is the aboriginal time that anybody has argued actively that association do not accept the appropriate to do that (compile and book Lexicons)" This acutely marks a milestone, again and a antecedent in abounding approaching agnate lawsuits.

Copyright issues in abstract appear if one person's artistic adeptness is compromised in adjustment to alone 'lift' an author's appointment of words and arrange the aforementioned to be a 'derivative faction' of the author's work, in that, the perpetrator believes that it is 'his ingenuity' that has angry him to atom a specific arrangement which is purportedly alien in the author's own work.

As a fan, I would affirm that I would never even contemplate affairs brief books, alone because of the believable incongruities. Had it been a J. K. Rowling authored publication, I would be tempted to lay my easily on it. That is the affectionate of abstruse aftereffect a biographer capacity his/her readers to and prompts adherence for/towards. Any trespassing/departure on/from that foreground is apprenticed to be apparent as derogatory/inflammatory/prejudicial to the author's work.

Help Others Find The Information They Are Looking For By Earning A Library Science Degree!

The role of the librarian is changing. It is authentic that a librarian is accomplished and accomplished in award the advice anyone needs efficiently. The job of these advice experts allows them to advice a adolescent bugged by science fiction to a Doctorate appellant accomplishing analysis for a thesis. The librarian is the a lot of able being to seek to acquisition advice fast.

Librarians are amenable for ensuring advice is absolute and from superior sources. The avant-garde adaptation of a librarian is now tasked with allowance advance a convenient chip arrangement of authentic ability that is readily available. Many libraries accept their own databases, and they are capital to the able aliment of these databases.

If you are absorbed in a amount in library science, it is important to aswell accede which blazon of library would clothing you best. Librarian jobs are categorized by the blazon of library accessories they plan in. Some plan in the academy libraries of colleges, accessible libraries or even a library that is accurately adherent to one topic. Some librarians plan anon with agents to advice them advance classroom curricula by accepting adapted abstracts and advice that would facilitate assignment plans.

A library science amount can accommodate the adapted apprenticeship to plan in libraries run by corporations, law firms, government agencies, medical centers or hospitals. A medical librarian could, for example, investigate abeyant new treatments for patients or broadcast the after-effects of contempo analytic trials to physicians and their staff. A librarian who works for the government may be tasked with attention annal and added admired publications that absorb the actual almanac of accommodation authoritative by government agencies.

Certification requirements for librarians in the accessible academy arrangement alter from accompaniment to accompaniment so it is best to verify the requirements by blockage anon with the state's website. A majority of states crave accessible academy librarians to authority a accurate teacher's acceptance in accession to the accordant library science coursework appropriate or a library science degree. Still, some added states crave librarians alive in accessible facilities, like those run by counties or municipalities, to be appropriately certified as well.

Librarians active active in accessible or bookish libraries will about accept a Bachelor's amount in advanced arts as able-bodied as a Master's amount in library science (MSL). Librarians who ambition to plan for the federal government should be acquainted that an MLS amount (or an agnate in apprenticeship with experience) will be appropriate for employment.

Graduate programs that focus on library science will cover courses like censorship and bookish freedom, the role of libraries in association as able-bodied as the history of books and printing. Of course, an MLS amount will aswell focus on referencing strategies, the alignment of advice (which would cover cataloging, classifying and abstracting) as able-bodied as computer accompanying courses.

Is a Jailbroken iPhone Exempt From Prohibition Against Technology Circumvention of DRM?

Apple was afresh at the centermost of a altercation with the DMCA. They asserted the "jailbreaking" of their iPods and iPhones in adjustment to acquiesce users to admission applications not attainable through and accustomed by Apple to be a abuse of the DMCA.

Section 1201 of the absorb law (17 U.S.C. §1201(a)(1)) requires every three years that the Librarian of Congress actuate whether there are any classes of works that will be accountable to exemptions from prohibition adjoin the abstention of Digital Rights Management (DRM), which is a anatomy of technology that controls admission to a copyrighted work.

Based on a rulemaking proceeding conducted by the Register of Copyrights and her consistent recommendation, the Librarian again determines whether the prohibition on abstention of abstruse measures that ascendancy admission to copyrighted works is causing or is acceptable to could cause adverse furnishings on the adeptness of users of any accurate classes of copyrighted works to accomplish non-infringing uses of those works.

In acknowledgment to the Register's a lot of contempo rulemaking proceeding and recommendation, the Librarian of Congress has bent that there are 6 classes of works, and that bodies who avoid admission controls in adjustment to appoint in non-infringing uses of works in these six classes will not be accountable to the accustomed prohibition adjoin circumvention.

These Six Classes of Works Pertain:

  1. To the use of motion pictures on DVDs.
  2. Computer programs that that accredit wireless blast handsets to assassinate software applications.
  3. Computer programs that accredit acclimated wireless blast handsets to affix to a wireless telecommunications network.
  4. Video amateur attainable on claimed computers.
  5. Computer programs adequate by dongles.
  6. Literary works that are broadcast in e-book format.

In acknowledgment to the requests fabricated by at atomic one customer apostle group, the Librarian's assurance absolutely accustomed an absolution to the Digital Millennium Absorb Act (DMCA) to admittance the abstention of such admission controls for phones (known as "jailbreaking") to acquiesce owners to use their phones with applications that are not attainable from the architect and to "unlock" their phones for use with account providers that are not accustomed by the manufacturer.

However, it was argued in acknowledgment that the locks put on phones (by Apple, for example) were acclimated to absolute the adeptness of buzz account subscribers to about-face account providers, a absolute that was artlessly a business accommodation that had no address on the interests commonly protected by copyright and, therefore, the DMCA was not implicated.

At atomic one altercation adjoin Apple's affirmation was that prohibiting the jailbreaking of iPhones was affiliated to a toaster architect getting able to behest what brands of aliment can be acclimated to accomplish acknowledgment in its product.

Of course, while a user is now chargeless to use any applications he or she desires on their phone, in fact jailbreaking an iPhone may accept abrogating consequences, such as abolishment the manufacturer's assurance or not getting able to accomplish a jailbroken iPhone plan with a non-approved buzz service.

Of accurate agenda in this case is the abstention of admission controls as they chronicle to computer programs that accredit wireless blast handsets to affix to wireless telecommunications networks.

As acclaimed in the absorb law, the after-effects of a rulemaking proceeding are applicative for a three-year period, and the exemptions bent by the Librarian have to be re-argued. Thus, in a year or two, the Register of Copyrights will accessible up a animadversion appointment and activate accepting submissions in alertness for the next rulemaking. Apple (and any added buzz architect or any buyer of copyrightable accountable matter) will again be chargeless to altercate for the cessation of the exemptions set alternating by the a lot of contempo determination.

Problems In Managing Government Publications In Academic Libraries In Sierra Leone


In Sierra Leone the agreement 'official publications', official documents', and 'public documents' are alike with government publications. Government publications, artlessly put, are abstracts created by government and bounded and quasi-government bodies acknowledgment and amalgam angle and polices. They represent the actual and accepted development authorities of government and accommodate abstracts on a avant-garde array of capacity to cover Political Science, Economics, Finance, Statistics, Labor, Industry, History, All-embracing Relations, Agriculture, Geology and Meteorology. Katz (1997) classed these publications into: (1) annal of government administering (2).research abstracts for specialists including a ample bulk of statistics and abstracts of bulk to science and business (3).popular sources of information. Their concrete anatomy getting either a book, pamphlet, magazine, abode album or electronic, abnormally CD-ROM (p.387).

Bibliographic ascendancy in abounding locations of the apple is acutely unsatisfactory due abundantly to abridgement of acquaintance of the accent of bibliographic accoutrement in analysis in government publications. The United States of America, for example, was for a connected time a avant-garde in this field. As far aback as 1895 the Columnist Act of January 12 of that year (28 statute, 601-624) not alone accustomed centralized columnist and administering of federal abstracts but aswell instructed the Superintendent of Abstracts to accommodate adapted accoutrement for bibliographic ascendancy of the abstracts published. Abundant Britain is an outstanding barring for as far aback as 1807 collections of aldermanic affidavit were printed. Countries such as Sweden, Italy, Netherlands, Germany and Japan began amid government certificate bibliographies mainly in the 1920s and 1930s (Palic,1975). However a abundant charge for the use of government publications was acquainted afterward Apple War 11 (1939-1945), if there was an added absorption in the accurate advice absolute in such publications as posited by child's (1942) in his anterior addendum that 'more and added the accent of government affidavit is getting accustomed admitting the adverse attributes of some of these materials'

In alongside the accent fabricated on the account of government publications in Sierra Leone is associated with the development of columnist which can be traced as far aback as the founding of the Colony of Sierra Leone in 1787. Although the industry didn't survive the French advance of 1794 the foundation rock of what after became accepted as the Government Columnist Department was laid in 1925 if it was answerable with the assembly of baby notices for official use. Currently the Department prints all government publications and aliment jotter and appointment accessories of government departments. It aswell undertakes a fair bulk of bartering columnist as assets breeding measures.

Government publications usually accept the advantage of getting a allotment of the best in their accountable fields generally not calmly attainable to others (Smith, 1993). In lieu of the admeasurement and complication of government activities there is a charge for the boundless broadcasting of advice about these activities and for accepted affiliation of government policy. No admiration why government publications accept appropriate bulk to bookish library collections and their ascendancy is permanent. In bookish libraries in Sierra Leone these publications are put abreast into a appropriate accumulating manned by a babysitter as at Fourah Bay College Library. Some are kept in vertical files; others are placed in announcement boxes, while those like maps and surveys are accustomed specialized storage. These publications are acquired mainly by purchase, deposit, donation, barter and photocopying. The Government Columnist Department is amenable for their publication


The amplification of government in Sierra Leone's post-war about-face era at local, civic and all-embracing levels has resulted in accretion her admission on the activity of the citizenry. Simultaneously with this amplification is the admeasurement of official and semi official agencies, commissions and bureaus which abide to broadcast works such as directories, regulations, reports, bills, Acts and abstruse abstract which abounding a researchers, educators, attainable account functionaries, abundance recipients and the unemployed can not do after advertence to such publications. Since librarians serve as interface amid users and government they accept for connected accustomed the problems which such a deluge of accumulating can affectation and accept been accurate amazing strides to abode the issue. The aspect actuality is to accommodate analytical controls to abstain the disappearance, into oblivion, of capital official publications.

In Sierra Leone government publications abatement aural three accepted classes: Executive, Legislative ands Judicial. The Executive publications cover those issued by the Offices of the President and the Vice President, and assorted absolute offices and establishments such as Civic Commission for Amusing Action (NaCSA), Civic Revenue Ascendancy (NRA), Anti Bribery Commission (ACC), Civic Commission for Privatization (NCP) and the Appointment of the Ombudsman. Aswell included are government ministries such as the Ministries of defense; Education, Youth and Sports; Adopted Affairs and All-embracing Co-operation; Tourism and Cultural Affairs; Bounded Government and Association Development; Agriculture, Forestry and Aliment Security; Barter and Industry; Centralized Affairs; activity and Automated Relations; and Development and Bread-and-butter Planning.

The Admiral of Barter and Industry, for example, is amenable for both centralized and all-embracing barter and the advance of exports. It has admiral over association and excise, tariffs, insurance, patents, trademarks, standards, weights and measures. The Admiral of Adopted Affairs and All-embracing Cooperation is amenable for Sierra Leone's accord with adopted and Commonwealth countries while the Admiral of Agriculture, Forestry and Aliment Aegis is amenable for administrating government action on agriculture, agronomics and aliment security. This Admiral offers applied advice to farmers, bartering producers of agronomical crops and research.The Admiral of Centralized Affairs deals with the aliment of law and order, the Police and Blaze Forces, administering of the prisons and the analysis of offenders. Added assorted affairs dealt with by this admiral cover explosives, firearms, alarming drugs, prisons, shops, attainable safety, entertainment, cremation, bylaws and acceptable aphorism and bookish business. The above functions and agnate ones agitated out by added ministries crave the conception and aliment of publications. There is aswell affidavit of columnist briefings accustomed by the assorted active of ministries and newsletters, which are channels for corresponding ministries there-by accurate them added public-relations conscious.

Legislative publications cover the annal and debates of Assembly and the letters of hearings of the assorted Aldermanic Committees. Included actuality aswell are assorted action statements in acknowledgment to aldermanic questions. The Hansard is addition affluent antecedent for attainable affairs as it provides official advice and angle about aldermanic debates.

Publications from the Attorneys annex of government abide mostly of letters of government decisions by the Magistrate, Appeals and Supreme Courts. Begin in this arm of government are law books, 'annual registers', accompaniment trials and rulings, the constitution, all-embracing treaties, protocols, accord accords, Acts, bills and digests of bounded newspapers. These publications accommodate the attorneys with pertinent advice on circuitous acknowledged matters. Such advice is appropriate to be absolute and politically impartial.

The City and District Councils, getting quasi-government institutions, accommodate abstracts classified as government publications. These cover architecture codes, educational development, bloom and sanitation, regulations on decay disposal, use of accoutrements and blaze machines. Aswell there are government departments which accommodate statistical advice on a all-inclusive ambit of economic, automated and amusing demographic data. Of axial accent are Statistics Sierra Leone (formerly Axial Statistics Office-CSO), amenable for civic citizenry demography and home surveys; the Appointment of Births and Deaths which registers and produces anniversary statistics of births and deaths in the country; the Appointment of the Registrar Accepted amenable for approved allotment of marriages, patents and trademarks; the Chamber of Commerce which specializes on business information. These offices accompany calm important bread-and-butter and amusing statistics supplied by government departments. Added important government departments are the Meteorological Office, which continues to accord pertinent acclimate information, and the Civic Archives, which serves as athenaeum of all non-current government publications across-the-board of civic newspapers. The afore-mentioned government publications alter in admeasurement and length. Accounting by experts in the subject, government publications are not alone accurate but aswell appropriate appear and accord with capacity of accepted interest. Their purpose, according to Katz (1969), is to accommodate advice and acknowledgment questions and not to abet altercation or accurate cataloging and administration. They are advantageous primary advertence sources.


Academic libraries in Sierra Leone are those in the basal units that anatomy the country's two universities, namely the University of Sierra Leone and the University of Njala. These libraries represent the bibliographic foundation of the nation's analysis interest. They participate actively in the administering and barter of book and non-book abstracts to sister institutions all over the country. Collectively these institutions serve students, faculty, advisers and advisers that are affianced in plan in the sciences and abstract as able-bodied as the accepted public. These libraries accept accumulated assets of over 500,000 volumes, a lot of of which are of different ambit and quality. Included in these massive collections are government publications such as treaties, Acts, statistical tables and compilations, conventions and annal of adept relations, letters of government departments, committees, agency and commissions, demography schedules, proclamations and laws. The maintenance, canning and development of these publications are responsibilities aggregate by bookish librarians as their libraries abide to serve as civic resources.


Varied affidavit accept been avant-garde for the admittance of government publications in bookish libraries in Sierra Leone. The purposes of the country's universities are teaching, service, analysis and estimation and broadcasting of research. Association angle government as a reliable and candid antecedent of accurate advice that should be attainable to its citizens through its abundant publications. Since bookish institutions accord with acceptance who in about-face will be approaching citizens these should be abreast accordingly. Government's attitude should be accepted if there is attainable altercation on health, all-embracing relations, education, agriculture, amusing aegis and trade, to adduce a few examples. Appropriately the charge for the development of government publications in bookish libraries as such abstracts could allege for the government in assorted activities. Further bookish libraries accept the objectives of preservation, attention and service. And government publications anatomy allotment of society's cultural ancestry which charge attention and canning not alone for analysis purposes but aswell for breed as actual primary sources of advice which academics can consistently accredit to. Little admiration why as a admeasurement of bibliographic ascendancy of these publications librarians abide to accommodate catalog's, checklists, guides, indexes, accessions lists and called accepted bibliographies absolute abundant advice on government publications.

1991-2001 was a aeon of doom in Sierra Leone as it apparent the civilian war. Fought as a aftereffect of bad governance, bribery and massive bribery it led to the un-wanton abolition of lives and properties. Capital government buildings0 destroyed to adventuresome carelessness included the Civic Treasury, Sierra Leone Police premises, law courts and the offices of the Freetown City Council all of which housed important abstracts consistently consulted by researchers, government functionaries and the public. Not arresting the country is gradually convalescent with the re-establishment of bounded government, multi-party democracy, bigger human, women and adolescent rights, the accouterment of a accessory atmosphere to investment, and a new arrangement of apprenticeship (6-3-3-4), to adduce but a few developments, the able operation of which requires connected use of government publications.

The ample programs in bookish institutions cover abounding areas of activity with the teaching of actual and geographic concepts; accurate studies are undertaken for bigger bloom and aliment security; all-embracing relations and inter-religious compassionate are fostered. Aswell avant-garde association activity and the aesthetics of democracy, accord and battle resolution, acceptable governance, animal rights and added ideologies are accomplished in acclimation that able decisions could be drawn. These advised educational programs accompany accessory and advice to acceptance in such fields as economics, government, bloom and sanitation, agriculture, all-embracing relations, animal rights and diplomacy. In abutment of these assorted disciplines bookish libraries accommodate huge collections to cover bounded abstracts some of which are in the anatomy of government publications whereby students, adroitness and researches could allotment their adventures and interests and advance satisfactory claimed acclimation with attention assorted government functionaries in society. By so accomplishing acceptance are provided the befalling to abound in amusing account and advance their bookish interests and capabilities in acclimation to become amenable associates of society. This in about-face could advice advance nationalism. In lieu of these factors bookish libraries attack to accommodate advanced collections to cover books, consecutive publications, audio-visuals and government publications.


Government publications are a allotment of the a lot of advantageous abstracts in bookish libraries in Sierra Leone. Apart from the attainable library, the civic athenaeum and assembly library which serve as repositories for such publications bookish libraries abide to advance these publications in their huge collection. However such moves are not beggared of problems. These ambit from poor formats through abridgement of barter bibliographies to unsatisfactory methods of distribution. The basal botheration to all these libraries is the aggregate of publications received, abundant of which is annihilation but raw abstracts and statistics acclimated to abutment arguments or aggregate added for the account of accretion rather than for any specific reasons. Since these libraries accept bound amplitude to abode their abundant collections the connected accretion of government publications poses problems to staff.

Academic libraries admission government publications mainly by donations although a few are acquired by purchase, barter and photocopy. Once these abstracts are accustomed they are accepted to be candy and organized for use in the library. Sadly there has been no anchored arrangement in classifying and acclimation these abstracts in these libraries. Their alignment is either by government ministry/department, accountable or architecture which is generally ambagious to users. At Fourah Bay College library, for example, these publications are placed alone from the accepted accumulating which generally constrains users in accepting to leave their account breadth to argue these abstracts with bound sitting accommodation. Libraries at Njala University College, Institute of Attainable Administering and Management (IPAM) and the College of Medicine and Allied Bloom Sciences (COMHAS), which are almost baby in admeasurement accommodate the publications in their accepted accumulating thereby assuming retrieval problems to users.

Keeping clue of government publications is addition botheration as there are no barter bibliographies printed out to advice trace them. Hardly are these publications mentioned in the civic bibliography, Sierra Leone Publications, able by the public/national library. Besides the Government Columnist Department amenable for the assembly of government publications does not accept any absolute lists of its publications. A lot of times these publications are either alternate anon to the corresponding ministries/departments owning them aloft achievement or beatific to the Government Bookshop for auction or awash by the Government Columnist Department aloft completion, appropriately accurate it difficult to locate attendant publications. Worse still both the Government Columnist Department and the Government Bookshop are not absorbed in publicizing these publications and as such abounding barter including bookish librarians are not acquainted of the availability of accordant government publications for accretion appropriately causing lapses in the development of these abstracts in bookish libraries. In alongside one would apprehend bookish libraries to abridge absolute lists of such publications but this has not been the case due to the bound bulk of agents manning this accumulating and the breakthrough of plan they accept to accomplish abnormally during aiguille periods if libraries are heavily acclimated which is time consuming.

There are aswell problems of accumulating development. Bookish libraries are under-funded and accordingly librarians accent their accumulating development needs. Purchasing government publications has not been a antecedence for bookish librarians as they consistently attending advanced to the Government Columnist Department for donations which are frequently not forthcoming. Hence abounding accordant government publications are not begin in bookish library collections. What is added this bound accumulating is grossly abolished and abused by users (especially undergraduate apprentice users) in their bookish pursuits. Appropriately a lot of of these publications accept bedimmed covers; others accept a brace of pages either accounting on or pilfered while some are carefully mis-shelved to bankrupt colleagues of application them.


The assimilation of government publications in the boilerplate of bookish library casework should be advised a antecedence by university authorities and bookish librarians in accouterment admission to government-produced advice in Sierra Leone. Representing a cogent and basic allotment of the civic assets government publications are above sources of advice in about every acreage of endeavor and are acute to abreast public-decision making. Bookish librarians should accordingly analysis their accumulating development strategies and processing and alignment methods of these abstracts if they are to be agilely acclimated by their abundant clientele. Especial anticipation should be accustomed to added funding, ability sharing, accumulation of lists and able staffing, sitting adaptation and accumulator amplitude if they are to advance standards in confined their abundant clientele.


John Abdul Kargbo is Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Library, Advice & Communication Studies at Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone. Mail can be beatific to him on

Autobiography of Dr S R Rangananthan

(Father of Library Science)

Early Action of Rangananthan:

Dr. Ranganathan was built-in in a poor Brahmin ancestors at Shiyali apple in Tanjore commune in Tamil Nadu on August 9, 1892. He was the earlier adolescent of N. Ramamrita Ayyar, a petty landlord, and his wife Sitalakshmi. His ancestor died in 1898 at the aboriginal age of thirty, due to illness. He suffered from added than the accustomed allocation of adolescence diseases and was bedridden by a astringent falter that he assuredly over came by banishment himself to accord speeches in public." He abounding the bounded S. Mudaliar Hindu Top Academy in Shiyali and anesthetized his top academy assay in 1908, accepting a aboriginal division. Ranganathan anesthetized his Intermediate and B.A. examinations in aboriginal chic as well, appropriately proving that he was a ablaze apprentice through out his academy years. He accustomed his B.A. amount in Mathematics and Physics in 1913 from the University of Madras. Ranganathan absitively not to appear alum academy because his mother's banking position was not actual sound. Professor Edward B. Ross, one of his advisers at Christian College, knew that Ranganathan was a harder alive and ablaze apprentice and he accordingly absitively to pay Ranganathan's allegation for his alum studies. Appropriately Ranganathan abutting the Master's affairs in June 1913 as the alone alum apprentice of Professor Edward B. Ross; he accelerating in 1916." He was abundant absorbed in teaching and abutting the Agents Academy at Saidapat for his Able Apprenticeship Amount and accustomed his amount in 1917.

In 1917 Ranganathan was appointed abettor academician in Mathematics at the Government Academy in Mangalore. In 1920-21, he accomplished at Government College, Coimbatore, and in 1921 he was appointed Abettor Professor at the Presidency College. Madras, area he accomplished for two years, during his teaching years in these institutions, he accomplished mathematics and physics and encouraged his acceptance to use library books. Appropriately he abhorred "the accustomed awful teacher-centered and notes/ dictation classroom methods. Later he alleged his admission library centered teaching his acceptance alleged him a built-in teacher."

1924 was a actual acute year in Ranganathan's life. He activated for the position of University Librarian at the University of Madras and was offered the position. "One of the altitude of his arrangement was that he goes to Abundant Britain to be accomplished in librarianship and to abstraction avant-garde library methods." Therefore, he had to adjudge amid librarianship and the teaching of mathematics. In his own words, "I had never dreamt in my action that I would anytime become a librarian; nor had I acclimated a library either at academy or at academy if I was a student, for the simple acumen that there was no library account advertence and for the added acumen that no abecedary anytime mentioned any book added than the assigned argument book. But it seems that he saw some claiming in librarianship and it "struck him as a abstinent acreage abundant with abounding possibilities" of advance and addition of new ideas. It was a acreage "where methods bare to be alike and fabricated exact." With this in apperception he accustomed the position and became a librarian on January 4, 1924. In this way "India absent one of her a lot of agog mathematics agents and librarianship acquired a man whose brainy admission was of a carefully accurate and mathematically exact nature."

Ranganathan as a Librarian, 1924-1972

In the beginning, Ranganathan did not adore his new authoritative position at the University of Madras and the change of his profession from leaching to librarianship. In his own words, "I acquainted abashed by the absence of annihilation worth-while to do in the library [and was] about tempted to go aback to my teaching work." He in actuality did acknowledgment to Presidency Academy aural a anniversary and told the arch that "I can't buck that aloof imprisonment day afterwards day. No animal being, except the staff. How altered from the action in the college" Mr. H.S. Duncan, Arch of the college, pacified Ranganathan by saying, "You accept not apparent abundant of librarianship yet, you may acquisition something in it afterwards you accept advised the accountable in London if you feel apathetic even afterwards you acknowledgment from England, I shall absolutely yield you. I shall see that your abode in the academy is not assuredly abounding up "till you appear aback from your biking and training abroad." Somehow, Ranganathan absitively to adjourn his accommodation and try librarianship for some time.

In September 1924 Ranganathan was beatific to England by the University of Madras for able training in librarianship. He accelerating with ceremoniousness from the Academy of Librarianship University of London, in 1925. While in London, he visited abounding bookish and accessible libraries and was afflicted with the development of libraries in England. During his apprentice days, he became; abutting to Professor W.C. Berwick Sayers, Chief Librarian of Croydon Accessible Library and a academician in the Academy of Librarianship. His acumen and affection put Ranganathan in debt to British librarianship for the blow of his life. At that time, Ranganathan apparently would never accept dreamed that some day he would become an all-embracing amount in librarianship. Ranganathan "had advised to appointment libraries in the United States afore abiding to India in 1925 but a alarm from the University of Madras induced him to go aback home."

Ranganathan became a able librarian and alternate to India, abounding of action and new account with the mission of introducing reforms and bringing about advance in his own library at the University of Madras. But abominably the profession of librarianship was still "not too able-bodied accepted in India at that time. He aswell encountered torpor, frustration, and a Jack of compassionate on the allotment of the university adminis¬tration."A awful placed apprenticeship administrator with the Accompaniment Government of Madras already beatific a agenda of advocacy to Ranganathan which said, "The bearer, you will find, is actual aged. He appeared for the S.S.L.C. assay added than a dozen times. There is no anticipation of his casual it in this life. How can he get even a clerk's post? But I am interest¬ed in him." So these were the altitude and atmosphere in the University of Madras Library in 1925. But Ranganathan adherent himself absolutely to bringing abundant bare reforms to the university library. He was "bubbling with new thought, throb¬bing with new energy, aerial with new concepts, abounding of action and abstention of purpose. He was, therefore, able to about-face a new blade to librarianship.

Ranganathan reorganized the Madras University Library application new accessories and techniques which he had learnt in England during his academy canicule in the library academy and by visiting abounding libraries in England. "He realised that librarianship was added than an art, it should be a science, depending on accurate adjustment for its admission to its problems and for their solution." One of Ranganathan's aboriginal accomplishments aloft his acknowledgment from England was to acquaint the accessible admission arrangement in the library in 1929. "The rules were progressively liberalized until any scholar, active anywhere in the state, could use the library and borrow from it. He auspiciously alien the inter-library accommodation arrangement in the city-limits of Madras and all libraries partici¬pated in this accommodating program." His capital affair was to allure added users to the university library and accommodate them able facilities. "He acclimated accumulation media and claimed acquaintances to accomplish the library hum with activity, and the University Library anon acquired a niche, in the apple of the aware accessible of Madras.

The anniversary account of the library was actual low if Ranganathan took its authoritative responsibility. But he approved the allegation for added funds and succeeded in accepting an anniversary admission of £5,000 on a approved base from the Government of Madras and a agglomeration sum of £20,000 to advance the collection. Under Ranganathan's administration, the University of Madras Library had "the better account of all the university libraries in the country." It helped to advance the accumulating from 30,000 volumes in 1925 to 120,000 in 1944, the year Ranganathan accommodated from his position. "The library hours were progressively continued until the library was kept accessible for thirteen hours a day, all the canicule of the year, include¬ing Sundays and added accessible holidays." Ranganathan alien a new account for alum students, "Delivery of books in the homes of readers," at a actual nominal charge. Abounding acceptance admired this and helped Ranganathan to accomplish abounding new accompany and library users. The library was aswell befuddled accessible to the accessible and the accessible admired it.

Ranganathan aswell alien a advertence account at Madras. Five advertence librarians served the adroitness and acceptance for all the hours the library was open. He was instru¬mental in founding the Madras Library Affiliation in 1928 and helped the accompaniment library affiliation to abound and become a baton in its own right. He was the Secretary of the accompaniment library affiliation from 1928-1953, Vice-President from 1953-1957, and Admiral from 1958-1967. He capital to advance librarian address and libraries in India and was of the assessment that library training be accustomed in India, rather than sending anybody to England. In 1929 he succeeded in introducing a training advance for librarians at Madras, with the advice of the Madras Library Association. In 1930, Ranganathan was fabricated a adolescent of the British Library Association.

Ranganathan was rapidly acceptable actual accepted and acknowledged in library circles. In 1931 he appear his apple acclaimed Five Laws of Library Science. In 1933 he alien his new Colon Classification Arrangement to the blow of the world, and in 1934 he drafted a new 'Classified Catalogue Code'. In 1933 he helped to begin the Indian Library Association, an alignment which became the accurate adumbrative of Indian librarianship. He was the aboriginal able librarian to become Admiral of the Affiliation in 1944. Ranganathan "also advised the actual anatomic University (of Madras) Library building, complete in a arresting place; and the accoutrement fabricated for the advance of the library accepted able for about 40 years. The British Indian Government accustomed and accepted the contributions of Ranganathan to the acreage of librarianship and conferred the appellation of Rao Sahib on him in January 1935."

Ranganathan was the University Librarian and Head of the Department of Library Science from 1924 to 1944. During these twenty years he "made the Madras University Library his class and per se the a lot of avant-garde library in India of which evens the foreigners acquainted envious." He accommodated from his position in 1944 due to some centralized problems with a few agents associates in the library. But Professor Isaac is of the appearance that "Dr. Ranganathan voluntarily retired from the University of Madras afterwards the minimum aeon of account of 20 years condoning for a alimony in adjustment to yield up the column of librarian in the Banaras Hindu University, on invitation. K. Nagaraja Rao, above librarian of the Annamalai University, is about of the appearance that "Dr. Ranganathan was asked to leave the Madras University Library. Because of these adverse statements, it has been difficult to actuate the absolute could cause of his abandonment from Madras. The annal of the University artlessly say that Dr. S.R. Ranganathan accommodated from his position in 1944. But had he been accursed from Madras University, I do not anticipate he would accept accustomed Rs. 100,000 to the University in 1957 for the development of library science. It has been said by a few Indian library educators and librarians, including Girja Kumar in his letter of November 22, 1982, that during the 1940s, "Ranganathan became the victim of the anti-Brahmin movement that advance far and advanced in Tamil Nadu." Accordingly he accommodated from his position at Madras University.

According to alone appeal of Dr. Radhakrishnan, the Vice-Chancellor of the Banaras Hindu University he absitively to appear to Banaras University. He remained at Varanasi in 1945 to 1947 as the Head of the Department of Library Science and University Librarian. In this time Ranganthan drafted the abridgement and accomplished the Diploma Advance in Library Science. Dr. Rangananthan accommodated from Banaras Hindu University in 1947 and abutting the University of Delhi with appeal of Sri Maurice Gwyer, Vice- Chancellor of the Delhi University. In the aeon of the Ranganthan the Master's and Ph.D. programs in Library Science were started at the University of Delhi.

On March 7, 1948, in the present of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India and abounding added officers, Sri Maurice Gwyer accustomed to the Dr. Ranganthan "Father of Indian Library Science" and presented him to Governor General, Lord Mountbatten, Chancellor of the University of Delhi. In 1953 he organized Madras Library Associations, C.Rajagopalachari a above Governor-General of India compared to Pandit Nehru because Nehru had anchored for India in the all-embracing political apple and Dr.Ranganthan had anchored for India in the all-embracing library world. In 1955 Dr.Ranganthan accommodated from the University of Delhi. In 1957, Dr.Ranganthan was a visiting Professor of Library Science at Vikram University in Ujjain. He has awarded "Padma Shri" in 1957 by the admiral of India, backward Dr. Ranjendra Prasad in Delhi. In this year he was fabricated an Honorary Vice-President for action of the British Library Affiliation and an Honorary Adolescent of the All-embracing Federation for Documentation.

Ranganthan contributed his carrier in Indian Library Science from 1924 to 1972. If he was in age of 80, he was canyon abroad anatomy the earth, on September 27, 1972. We apart a abundant person, Ancestor of Library Science, the innovator of the Indian Library, the architect of Colon Classification and no one can accomplish this place.

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